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雅思备考

雅思听力无法破7?不,是你审题出现误区!

2020-02-21

来源:南京环球教育

小编:南京环球教育 85
摘要:结合剑桥官方真题分享5大雅思听力高分秘籍;一针见血分析审题时可能出现的误区

  自2月1日起,凡本月报名南京环球教育线下课程,线上课程同步上,线下课程复课后同样正常上!享受线上线下双课时!


  等于所有课程能够学习两次!双课时学习,雅思备考效果翻倍!


  分享梗概


  针对人群


  所有的考生,尤其是听力到达瓶颈,需要突破7分的学生


  本篇重点:结合剑桥官方真题分享5大雅思听力高分秘籍;一针见血分析审题时可能出现的误区。


  分享嘉宾

  


  分享概要


  ▶ 5大高分秘籍:


  ▶[1]注意听力中的肯定否定 & 逻辑关键提示词


  ▶[2]结合完整语境 & 深入理解前文 & 答案不止一句话


  ▶[3]严谨细致,避免代词指代追悔莫及


  ▶[4]填空不仅仅是关键词定位 & 猜词性,还需要逻辑关系还原 & 语境对应


  ▶[5]平时多动笔,积累口语化表达 & 俚语 & 一词多义


  小贴士


  文章内容较多,请各位小伙伴一定要耐心看哦!


  干货满满!记得收藏哦!


  好多考鸭宝宝对雅思简直又爱又恨。口语和写作难提分是共识,那么阅读和听力应该是大家的强项,也就是帮助大家冲击雅思高分的重中之重了。


  但是呢,很多考鸭宝宝却对雅思所考察的能力认识不够全面和深入,导致复习进入误区,最终分数不够理想或者遇到刷分瓶颈。就拿听力来说,上完课刷过题之后相信大家都知道单词拼写、关键词定位和同义替换积累的重要性了,但是却容易忽略真正拉开差距的几个要点,也往往导致分析错因的时候不够一针见血。


  那么今天玥玥老师就跟大家分享一个观点:雅思听力,没那么简单。几个小要点,大家可以当做小测试,看你是否真的认识到它们在你备考雅思、尤其是听力部分的重要性了?


  [1]注意听力中的肯定否定


  & 逻辑关键提示词


  C13T1S3(剑桥真题第13套Test1-Section3,下文都用类似代号)中有这样一道题,题干如下:


  21. Why is Jack interested in investigating seed germination?


  A. He may do a module on a related topic later on.


  B. He wants to have a career in plant science.


  He is thinking of choosing this topic for his dissertation.


  当然,这道题要做对第一件事先是读题及划关键词,相信大部分同学都对这样的要求与技巧很熟悉了:


  先题干部分


  1)Why提示大家要关注原文因果类的表述(because, since, owing to, reason 等),


  2)Jack提示注意原文说话人的对应(性别,主要听男生表述),3)seed germination名词短语(术语、地点、例子、时间等)


  帮助定位原文重要信息及答案出现位置;


  再选项部分,选择题一定注意选项之间的纵向对比,关键词依然是名数形否,那么


  A. module/ related topic,


  B. career/ plant science,


  C. topic/ dissertation.


  当然这道题对大家还是有场景词汇的要求的,小考鸭们扪心自问


  module(a unit that can form part of a course of study, especially at a college or university in Britain 课程单元


  e.g. The course consists of ten core modules and five optional modules.这门课程包括十个必修单元和五个选修单元)


  和dissertation(a long piece of writing on a particular subject, especially one written for a university degree 专题论文或学术论文,雅思听力中经常同义替换paper, essay, thesis)等词的词义和发音你是否已经熟悉了?


  而seed germination(种子发芽)能认识最好,但它属于学科专有名词,如果不认识也没有关系,做到在原文听到发音可以反应定位就可以,所以小考鸭们还要有一个能力就是避免这些学术名词对大家造成心理和理解上的干扰。


  到目前为止,我们的准备工作做好了,进入正式分析题目的过程:


  原文对此题的描述如下:


  Emma: We’ve got to choose a topic for our experiment, haven’t we, Jack. Were you thinking of something to do with seeds?


  Jack: That’s right. I thought we could look at seed germination—how a seed begins to grow.


  Emma: Ok. Any particular reason? I know you’re hoping to work in plant science eventually…


  Jack: Yeah, BUT practically everything we do is going to feed into that. NO, there’s an optional module on seed structure and function in the third year that I might do, SO I thought it might be useful for that. If I choose that option, I DON’T have to do with dissertation module.


  Emma: Good idea.


  已经将段落中的重点信息为大家标明,蓝色帮助定位题干,划线加粗部分为答案句,但是这次需要大家额外关注的是红色及红色大写加粗部分,为什么呢?红色为干扰选项关键词出现的部分,而红色加粗部分为逻辑关键词及肯定否定相关描述。


  大家需要理解的是,雅思听力的题目及选项设置,都是精心设计过的—someone is paid to trap you. 所以,从出题人的角度去理解选项设置,包括正确选项的特点,以及干扰选项的常见错误原因,非常重要,这是对大家的听力及预测能力有了更高阶的要求。


  那么就以这道题目为例,正确选项对应原文出现表结论逻辑词提示(so)+同义替换(related topic=seed structure and function/ useful; later on=in the third year; may=might),而原文的表转折逻辑词(but)及否定(don’t)都揭示了错误选项的错误原因,即虽听力原文出现了原词(plant scienc; dissertation)但转折及否定词否定,句意与选项描述相反。


  因此综上所述,回到听力本身,除了有场景词汇的积累,能听到关键词及辨析同义替换以外,听肯定否定 & 逻辑关键词,才能真正帮助“高手们”预判答案内容及排除干扰项,选择题做到万无一失。


  [2]结合完整语境 & 深入理解前文


  & 答案不止一句话


  C8T4S3的23/24为一个多选题设置,题干如下:


  Which TWO reasons does Jennie give for deciding to leave some college clubs?


  A. She is not sufficiently challenged.


  B. The activity interferes with her studies.


  C. She does not have enough time.


  D. The activity is too demanding physically.


  She does not think she is any good at the activity.


  对应听力原文:


  Dan: So now I can put a bit of effort into meeting people— I haven’t had time so far. Any suggestions?


  Jennie: What about joining some college clubs?


  Dan: Oh right. You joined several, didn’t you?

  Jennie: Yes, I’m in the drama club. It’s our first performance next week, so we’re REHEARSING frantically, and I’ve got behind with my work, but it’s worth it. I’m hoping to be in the spring production, too.


  Dan: I’ve never liked acting. Are you doing anything else?

  Jennie: I enjoyed singing when I was at school, so I joined a group when I came to college. I don’t think the conductor stretches us enough, though, so I’ll give up after the next concert. And I also joined the debating society. It’s fun, but with all the REHEARSING I’m doing, something has to go, and I’m afraid that’s the one.

  Dan: Do you do any sports?

  Jennie: Yes, I’m in one of the hockey teams. I’m not very good, but I’d really miss it if I stopped. I decided to try tennis when I came to college, and I’m finding it pretty tough going. I’m simply not fit enough.


  Dan: Nor me. I think I’ll give that a miss.


  Jennie: I’m hoping it’ll help me to build up my stamina, but it’ll probably be a long haul.


  首先预设大家已经有相关词汇积累(自测:drama戏剧, rehearse排练、预演, conductor指挥;领导人, concert音乐会, debating society辩论社, hockey曲棍球, tennis网球)、


  应对生词的能力(frantically, stamina, haul不需要精确知道但要能够根据语境推测词义大概方向)、


  并了解多选题的考试技巧(题干关键词定位原文及注意限定,选项纵向对比,多选题本质在听并列逻辑—and, as well as, also, the next, another等,但各选项中的关键词基本原文都会提到,还需要抗原词干扰),


  还是如上,在题目对应原文部分,用蓝色帮大家标出定位题干信息,划线加粗部分为答案句标识,红色为干扰项,红色加粗为重要逻辑提示词;但这次我们用绿色划线来帮大家理下讲者所讲的内容逻辑,


  Jennie一共加入了3个college club(drama, singing, debating)和两个sports(hockey, tennis),选项中首先可以排除的是DE,虽然原文有同义替换或原词对应,但都没有回答题干问题中的college club限定,所以提示大家注意section 3中讲者的切换及问答,往往是下一个话题(此题结束或新题开始)开始的标志;


  而正确选项中,A选项要求大家能够明白stetch在语境中的使用含义,将原义拉伸引申为最大限度利用或要求进而激发某人潜能,因此对应选项中的challenge同义替换;


  难点在于对于选项C的理解,原文说It’s fun, but with all the REHEARSING I’m doing, something has to go, and I’m afraid that’s the one. 很多同学只根据答案句去倒推,自己脑补一大堆解释的原因,比如Jennie要rehearse debate,时间不够,所以要离开(go)。


  但其实正确理解这句话,需要的是大家对前文看似不是答案句的部分的理解为支持,并且能够在这句话的语境中快速带入前文内容,以及理解一些口语化的表达:rehearse第一次出现是在Jennie说到drama club时说到的:I’m in the drama club. It’s our first performance next week, so we’re REHEARSING frantically, and I’ve got behind with my work, but it’s worth it. 所以下文的rehearse其实指的是上文drama club的排练需要时间,something has to go和Jennie离开没有关系,是口语化表达“某事要被放弃”,故此选择C. She does not have enough time (for drama club rehearsing).


  这道题主要是想提醒各位小考鸭们,雅思听力所谓的考细节、我们所学习的一切做题技巧,都应该是建立在对篇章及前文语境理解的基础上的,这样才是实实在在的语言能力,搭配对考试的了解和题目技巧,确保万无一失,而非单纯靠猜题蒙题技巧,粗糙地倒回原文对应的答案句看下不认识或“不小心放空”没听到的单词,把一切错误归因为自己的粗心大意而已。


  还有一道类似典型题目给大家做思考:


  C13T1S3


  24. They agree that Grave’s book on seed germination is disappointing because


  A. It fails to cover recent advances in seed science.


  B. The content is irrelevant for them.


  C. Its focus is very theoretical.


  对应原文:


  Jack: Did you read that book on seed germination on our reading list?


  Emma: The one by Graves? I looked through it for my last experiment, though it wasn’t all that relevant there. It would be for this experiment, though. I found it quite hard to follow—lots about the theory, which I hadn’t expected.


  Jack: Yes, I’d been hoping for something more practical. It does include references to the recent findings on generically—modified seeds, though.


  Emma: Yes, that was interesting.


  读题时,题干需关注Grave人名专有名词原文定位,disappointing确定基调,because确定方向;选项注意AB的否定信息,


  A. fail/ recent advances/seed science;


  B. irrelevant;


  C选项关键词为focus/ theoretical


  此题难点在于,很多同学都表示按照课上和老师说的,我注意到了否定对应,B选项中的irrelevant明明原文有否定还原呀:though it wasn’t all that relevant there.而且还有转折逻辑提示词(though)出现,非常胸有成竹。


  但是请大家仔细理解完整语境:I looked through it for my last experiment, though it wasn’t all that relevant there. It would be for this experiment, though. 意思是Emma之前做的实验读到这个研究时并不相关,但是现在做的实验反而有相关性了,所以干扰选项A的否定虽还原但主语不对应。


  所以虽然答案句在后面,但是正确理解语境,前一句同等重要,再次向大家提醒完整语境的重要性。


  再举一个非常小但非常重要的例子,在C4T1S4中,出现了这样一个填空:


  trees evaporate water through their 36_________.


  对应原文:

The main difference between a tree and a building is a tree has got an internal mechanism to keep the temperature regulated. It evaporates water through its LEAVES and that means that the temperature of the LEAVES is never very far from our own body temperature.


  大部分同学都能根据划线部分前面的evaporate water轻松定位原文位置,并且听到后面空缺部分的发音。但是有不少同学填的是lives。大家觉得是什么原因导致错误?


  简单来说,还是没有习惯动动小脑筋,没有结合语境,没有好好分析词性,对自以为很了解和简单的词实际掌握得不扎实:这句话表达的明明是树木通过______蒸发水分,需要填的首先是名词,其次是树的一个部分,有点生物学常识的宝宝也应该能想到是这个leaves;而lives虽然在某种语境下发音与leaves一模一样,但是取这种发音是live做动词是居住,如果lives做名词则“i”发音/ai/,做“生命”义,发音和意思都无法和原文语境对应。


  上述只是一个很小的例子,希望引起大家的重视,语境理解、夯实基础语言能力太重要了。


  [3]严谨细致,避免代词指代追悔莫及


     好多同学会误以为填空题只要关注空前后的关键词、顶多注意一下答案逆序现象就好了,但其实真正拉开差距的,往往在对代词指代的反应及理解上。


  请大家看C11T3S1的第10题:


  9. Visitors will be able to learn about ______ and then collect some.)


  10. Part of the _______ has been made suitable for swimming.


  这道题的答案是river,好多同学看了答案后捶胸顿足,大呼简单,第二遍听得简直太清楚啦,然后就轻易过去了。


  但其实真的那么简单吗?这道题的错误率非常高,原因在于原文的代词指代:


  Martin: And there’s going to be a talk and slide show about mushrooms—and you’ll be able to go out and pick some afterwards and study the different varieties.


  Sue: Uh uh, and is it possible for children to swim in the river?

  Martin: Yes, part of it has been fenced off to make it safe for children to swim in. It’s very shallow, and there’s a lifeguard on duty whenever it’s open. The lake is too deep, so swimming isn’t allowed there.


  要解释为什么不填lake很容易,因为有结论逻辑提示词(so)以及否定isn’t,告诉我们lake不能swimming. 大家去总结错因时,一定要尽量还原第一遍的认知过程,而非事后诸葛亮有各种hindsight bias,为什么第一遍我们听不到river呢?river在哪里出现的呢?


  其实原词是在Sue的问题中出现的:is it possible for children to swim in the RIVER? 大部分同学按照惯性期待答案出现在Martin的回答中,但是Martin只说了

Yes, part of IT has been fenced off to make it safe for children to swim in. 没再第二次出现关键词而是用代词指代。


  这其实才是填空题真正的难点所在:当大家期待答案出现的位置时却出现了一个代词,前文已经出现过答案但这时意识到已经完美错过了。


  那么重要的是我们如何应对这种情况呢?只有两点:细致仔细!& 利用以理解为基础的短期记忆!


  细致仔细要求大家在上一题做完的情况下,不要有任何一个时刻的放松与舒缓,比如在听完上文 “and pick some afterwards and study the different varieties”知道已经回答完第9题collect some之后,就严阵以待做好下一题要马上出现的准备,把听到的名词随时准备着填到空缺处,而不是放空几秒错过重要信息;再有就是真正拉开高分与一般成绩的差距的,还是对原文每句话的把握和理解,如果做不到迅速反应应该填river,理解Sue的问题,继续往下听虽然听到代词但是能凭借理解的短期记忆还原代词指代,才是真正的听力理解能力。


  [4]填空不仅仅是关键词定位 & 猜词性,


  还需要逻辑关系还原 & 语境对应


  现在问大家一个问题,Section 4的填空题,或者是说任何一个地方出现的填空题,真的只要靠关键词定位 & 猜空缺部分词性内容就够了吗?请大家看下面一题:


  C11T3S4


  Ethnography: research which explores human cultures


  It can be used in business:


  —to investigate customer needs and 31_________

  对应原文为:

  (31) So, what’s it got to do with business, you may ask. Well, businesses are finding that ethnography can offer them deeper insight into the possible needs of customers, either present or future, as well as providing valuable information about their attitudes towards existing products.


  31题很多同学的脑回路是:空前面划住business小标题定位,customer needs提示答案很快要出现了,31肯定要填一个类似needs的名词,因此听力当中needs of customers附近出现了present/ future/information等几个名词,所以填得五花八门,其实都是错误的;


  但实际上,大家一定不能忽略的是and的作用。and在customer needs与需要填空的部分中间出现,提示大家,并列逻辑关系必须在原文有体现,所以真正填的词在as well as(并列逻辑关系词)后面出现,providing valuable information about替换前文的offer deeper insight into,二者同时替换题目中的investigate,真正的答案是后面的attitudes;


  下一题:


  Computer companies

  —There was a need to develop 34_________ to improve communication between system administrators and colleagues.

  对应原文:

  (34) Ethnographic research has also been carried out in computer companies. In one company, IT system administrators were observed for several weeks. It was found that a large amount of their work involved communicating with colleagues in order to solve problems, but that they didn’t have a standard way of exchanging information from spreadsheets and so on. So the team came up with an idea for software that would help them to do this.


  34题情况类似,大部分同学可以分析到划住computer companies和need to develop,猜出空缺部分填名词,


  所以一个非常强的干扰项就是

standard (It was found that a large amount of their work involved communicating with colleagues in order to solve problems, BUT that they didn’t have a STANDARD way of exchanging information from…)


  还振振有词关注到了转折逻辑关系词but;但是原文该语境表述的含义是以前没有standard way of doing so,因此想出了用software去达成这个目的,重点不是standard而是way,下文也告诉我们了解决方案就是software,所以当然要选择最终答案作为最优选择填空了。这道题又一次提示我们理解语境理解句意的重要性;


  下一题:

  Airlines

  —Respondents recorded information about their 36________ while traveling.

  对应原文:

  (36) For example, in one project done for an airline, respondents used their smartphones to record information during airline trips, in a study aiming at tracking the emotions of passengers during a flight.


  相信这次大家自己就会分析了,绝不是勾画关键词和空缺部分对应词性这么简单而已,所以不能填smartphones/ trips/ passengers,


  原文的during airline trips已经和填空设置部分后面while traveling有同义对应关系,而smartphones是手段而非目的,passengers语境含义完全不通顺,


  正确答案为 emotions (in a study aiming at tracking the EMOTIONS of passengers during a flight.),需要大家理解原文,排除干扰,看题干时足够细致注意到空后面的部分。


  [5]平时多动笔,积累口语化表达 & 俚语 & 一词多义


  最后一个小建议是:大家平时需要课下多做积累工作,不仅限于场景词汇及拼写、题干及选项生词、同义替换、重要逻辑提示词等,还有常见的口语化表达、俚语及一词多义现象等。


  在做题过程中,很多同学往往不是被单词困住,而是一些固定短语搭配影响了他们对原文某个句子甚至某个段落的理解,那就需要大家在刷题过程中做一个有心人,时时积累,刻刻反思;


  C8T4S3 21/22


  In which TWO ways is Dan financing his course?


  A. He is receiving money from the government.


  B. His family are willing to help him.


  C. The college is giving him a small grant.


  D. His local council is supporting him for a limited period.


  E. A former employer is providing partial funding.


  对应原文:


  Jannie: Have you managed to get the money for the course yet?

  Dan: Yes, that’s all sorted out now, thanks. It took long enough, though it was practically a year ago that I applied to my local council for a grant, and it took them six months to turn me down.

  Jennie: That’s really slow.

  Dan: And I thought I was eligible for government funding, but it seems I was mistaken. So then I asked the boss of the company I used to work for if they would sponsor me, and much to my surprise, he said they’d make a contribution.

  Jennie: But what about college grants and scholarships? There must be some you could apply for.

  Dan: Yes, there are, but they’re all so small that I decided to leave them until I was desperate.

  Jennie: Uhuh.

  Dan: And in fact I didn’t need to apply. My parents had been saying that as I already had a job, I ought to support myself through college. But in the end they took pity on me, so now I’ve just about got enough.


  Jennie: That’s good.


  答案选BE,红色标识为干扰项,黑色划线为答案句,划线加粗部分为逻辑提示词(并列/转折/结论等),非划线加粗部分为选项中关键词对应;

  本题需要大家在看题时就纵向对比,比如选项的主要区别为资助人( A. government; B. family; C.college; D. local council; E. former employer),这样在听的时候就会更有针对性;关注到选项区别,原文逻辑提示词及肯定否定/同义替换表述,题目本身不难;


  但这里重点想要强调的是,请大家注意一下grant, turn sb. down, leave them until…, take pity on sb.等类似短语表达:grant有动词含义“允许”,但在这个语境中取名词含义“拨款”;turn me down语境含义为拒绝某人,为口语化表达;leave有离开与留下两种含义,在此语境中取留下(它们暂且不用直到绝望时再启用);take pity on sb.固定搭配比较好判断,同情某人。


  这些都只是几个小例子,提醒大家平时分析错因/积累生词时,别忘了关注原文是否有一些一词多义现象或者固定搭配、口语化表达、俚语等等影响了你对听力文本的理解?那就需要大家勤奋一点,多动动小笔头,多积累,才能多进步。


  本篇总结


  综上所述,几个高分秘籍拱手送上:


  [1]注意听力中的肯定否定 & 逻辑关键提示词


  [2]结合完整语境 & 深入理解前文 & 答案不止一句话


  [3]严谨细致,避免代词指代追悔莫及


  [4]填空不仅仅是关键词定位 & 猜词性,还需要逻辑关系还原 & 语境对应


  [5]平时多动笔,积累口语化表达 & 俚语 & 一词多义


  后面搭配的例子及题目解析希望能够帮助大家理解,大家可以利用上述几个例子作为自测,阅读完解析后好好反思,自己的想法是否与解析一致?然后在备考及刷题过程中进一步内化,逃离解题及积累误区,踏踏实实走好考鸭的每一步,真正高效利用时间。


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