雅思大作文如何处理字数不够的问题

2017-12-26编辑: Jennifer来自: 环球教育整理

引言:在雅思大作文的写作当中,最让学生们头痛的问题之一就是:字数不够。字数不够,即在规定时间内(40分钟)没有达到文章字数要求(至少250单词)。字数不足250单词,文章最高将不会超过5.5分,这在《剑8》Test 2和《剑7》Test 4提供的考生答卷中均有体现。250字的篇幅要求,凑够字数是很多同学雅思上6分的一个重要点。接下来我们将探讨学生在雅思写作中字数不够的主要原因以及针对字数不够的问题有哪些相应的解决办法。

一、字数不够的原因:

1. 观点数量少:

如果学生知识面较窄,那么他们遇到某些话题常常会感到生疏不知从何下手;另外学生还会遇到的问题是面对一个话题脑海中思绪万千却无法将其系统地有条理地表述出来。

2. 不知道观点如何展开:

有了观点,却无法拓展的原因有二:一、可能这个论点只是一个细节,同学们没有有效地去把它概括起来,当然无法准确地展开讨论了。二、想不出如何去写拓展句,有效地支撑论点,使我们的观点有理有据。

3. 写作速度太慢:

那么,要在规定时间内满足字数要求,考生需要想出足够多的观点,学习如何展开观点,熟练运用复杂句并提高写作速度。

二、解决方案:

1. 首先,考生需要想出充分并且切题的观点。

为此,很多考生会搜集各种网站所做的"写作预测",从而提前准备观点。需要提醒考生的是不要盲目相信各种"预测",预测题目可以练习使用,但目的是更好地提升写作水平;相反,若把所有精力集中在预测题目上,并背诵相关内容,最终很有可能会被当作模板处理,而对于使用模板或者是含有大量语言记忆片段的文章,最高分数不会超过5分。所以,建议考生积累观点要走"正道"即:

(1)扩大阅读面。阅读中文相关内容也可以有效地增加考生的背景知识。

(2)积累同类话题的通用观点。

在文章总字数要求不变的情况下,每个段落观点数量越多,意味着支持句的数量就可以相应地减少。如果一个段落中含有两个观点,那么每个观点句展开一个支持句就满足字数要求了,如:

Charity organizations should give aid to people in the greatest need, wherever they are from, or help people in their own countries. Discuss both views and give your opinion. (2010年1月9日A类)

Opponents of charity organizations only giving aid domestically, however, contend the assistance should be open to people in need no matter where they are from. To start with, it is the functionality of charity organizations to render help to those who are in great need, regardless of their nationalities. Otherwise, it may be considered as going breach of the purposes they are established for. What is more, not only can international charity assistance enhance the friendship of two nations, but also help eliminate the conflicts and misunderstandings, thereby stimulating the cultural exchanges between countries. (94words)

2. 懂得将观点充分展开

如果一个段落只有一个观点,在保持段落字数不变的情况下,支持句的数量就要相应地增加,如:

Some people think that foreign tourists abroad should be charged more than local people to visit a country's cultural and historical attractions. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (2011年4月30日A类)

The reason that I oppose to the above view is the unfairness and inequality this proposal may conduce to. As is known to all, historic attractions are owned by all human beings and should be shared by people from all over the world equally and without discrimination. Once this proposal being implemented, an unfavorable impression of this country would be formed in no time. There is a fear that foreign travelers may never come again. Neither do their friends nor those who gain this negative information. And this will inevitably lead to a vicious circle. (95words)

因此,在观点较少的情况下,能否将观点充分地展开成为满足字数要求的关键所在。

其次,如何展开一个观点,关键在于是否能够灵活运用论证方式。常用的论证方式包括:因果论证,举例论证和比较与对比论证等,如:

A lot of innovations are made with the aim of making money for a few. This is because it is the rich and powerful people in our society who are able to impose changes (such as in working conditions or property developments) that are in their own interests. (第二句为因果论证)(《剑6》Test 4)

To do this, we need to improve the choice of public transport services available to travelers. For example, if sufficient sky train and underground train systems were built and effectively maintained in our major cities, then traffic on the roads would be dramatically reduced. (第二句为举例论证)(《剑8》Test 3)

The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast, those who have spent some time earning a living or traveling to other places, have a broader view of life and better personal resources to draw on. (第二句为对比论证)(《剑5》Test 2)

3. 最后,提高写作速度,其关键在于"固定"。

要想在那么短的时间内,在考场上高度紧张的状态下写出满足字数要求同时又非常优秀的文章来,的确是非常困难的,但是雅思考官曾讲过,考场上任何一篇优秀文章中的每一个单词都是经过精心准备的。因此,要想保证字数同时又保证质量,考前精心的准备和设计是非常必要的。如:

固定开头段

The late 20st century witnessed the surging boom of advanced technology, which has brought attention to a heated debate concerning whether housework should be accomplished manually.

The late 20st century witnessed the surging boom of the world population, which has brought attention to a heated debate concerning whether people should be encouraged to move into skyscrapers.

固定常用句型

引导观点或者解释论证:

It is a widely held perception that…

It is a commonly shared convention that…

举例子:

for example/instance, + 句子

such as/like/including, +名词/动名词

A good example for ... is that +句子

A case in point is that +句子

对比论证:

主语+should/would/could/might + do +其他+ if +主语+did/be(were) +其他

but/while

unlike/ by contrast/ on the contrary/ compared with/ on the other hand/ instead

另外也要注意文章中固定下来的内容,尤其是开头段、结尾段和文中的一些固定句型,最好不要摘自比较流行的辅导参考书,避免被考官认为是抄袭或者模板。因此,考生需要自己总结或者在阅读国外期刊杂志以及相关网站原版内容的过程中不断积累,同时还要保证固定内容不能超出自身英语水平太高,否则,被考官认定是语言记忆片段的可能性较大。把固定下来的内容运用熟练,就可以有效地提高写作速度,从而满足字数要求。

三、总结:

针对学生雅思大作文字数不够的问题,学生要有意识的进行阅读,积累知识扩大知识面,以便于对大部分的热点话题能够熟悉并且得心应手;锻炼自己的逻辑思维能力,善于总结概括观点,并由观点进行辩证思考;掌握常用大作文论证方式及标志性表达,能对观点进行充分展开;积累常用搭配和短语,提高写作速度。


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