如何提高托福写作语言表达能力

2017-05-09编辑: 孔菲来自: 环球教育整理

首先,我们来思考一个问题:什么阻碍了考生托福写作的语言表达能力?有些人说语法不过关,比如说主谓一致、名词的单复数形式、代词的指代歧义、语态及时态错误等问题。有些人说单词匮乏以及句式积累不够,比如说同一个词汇反复使用,句式变换少等问题。不可否认,托福写作的语言表达能力欠缺确实包括上述问题。

但是,大部分人可能忽视了一个问题,很多时候,我们的表达受到了我们母语的干扰。很多学生在写作中不遵从英语的表达或思维习惯,误将汉语的词义与英语的词义等同。所以想要提高托福写作的语言表达能力,考生还是需要知道英语与汉语的差异。

一、英语的形态变化

归纳起来,英语的形态变化主要有三种。

1.词形的变化导致词性的变化

通过前后缀的加减改变词性。由于具有词性的变化,英语可以用多种句式表达同一种意思。例如:

Let's discuss the details of the party.

Let's have a discussion about the details of the party.

We divide the profits among us.

We make a division of the profits among us.

汉语则没有词形的变化,不能通过词形的变化改变词性,这就难以通过不同的句式表达同一个意思。要有意识地利用英语的这个特点,在写作的时候通过变换单词的词性,使句式更为丰富多样,使英语也更地道。

2.词形的变化导致时态的变化和数量的变化

例如:

He has watered the flower.

He is watering the flower.

They have watered the flower.

They are watering the flower.

I have watered the flower.

I am watering the flower.

3.词形的变化导致程度和成分的变化

汉语只是在形容词及副词前加上"更""比较"或者"最"等字就可以表示比较级和最高级。例如:

早                 较早                  最早

early             earlier               earliest

另外,英汉两语代词都有主格、宾格现象,但汉语主宾没有词形变化,英语则不同,主格变成宾格使有词形的变化。例如:

He repaired the computer.

The computer was repaired by him.

4.词形的变化导致意思的变化

尝试用加减词缀的方式改变单词的意思,使下面的语言更加精彩、简洁。

① We cannot avoid failure in our life.

② This celebration is held twice a year.

④ Oxygen is a gas, which is not visible.

⑤ Living comfortably is not essential for one's life.

③ I was not sure whether  I would succeed at that time.

① Failure is inevitable in our life.

② This is a biannual meeting.

④ Oxygen is an invisible gas.

⑤ Living comfortably is nonessential for one's life.

③ I was unsure whether  I would succeed at that time.

二、英语与汉语的词序

由于有相当多的形态变化,很多时候,即使词序变了,也可以用形态变化来表示语义。因此,相对于汉语,英语的词序比较灵活。例如:

How lovely she is!

She is so lovely!

Never did I say that.

I never said that.

Hardly ,we worked.

We worked hardly.

No matter whether we will succeed, we have to try.

We will try, no matter whether we will succeed.

It is an very important festival for us.

For us, it is a festival of great importance.

It is, for us , a festival of great importance.

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